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Understanding Nemawashi and Ringi System

If you're new to Japanese work settings, you might wonder why meetings don't always lead to immediate decisions. The reason lies in their unique approach to decision-making, known as the Nemawashi and Ringi system. This method involves thorough discussions and consultations before reaching a consensus, ensuring that all viewpoints are considered carefully. 

Understanding the Ringi system will help you fit in the business culture and expand your career in Japan.

What is the Nemawashi system in Japanese work culture?

Nemawashi is a Japanese term that refers to the process of laying the groundwork or preparing the soil before planting a tree. In the context of Japanese business culture, nemawashi metaphorically describes the process of laying the groundwork or building consensus before formally presenting a proposal or decision to a larger group or higher-ranking authority. It is often translated as "preparing the ground" or "laying the foundation."

Nemawashi involves informal discussions, meetings, and consultations with relevant stakeholders to gather input, address concerns, and build support for a proposed idea or decision. By engaging in Nemawashi beforehand, organizations can increase the likelihood of smooth approval and implementation of proposals through the Ringi system. Addressing concerns and building consensus during Nemawashi helps mitigate resistance and facilitate a smoother approval process within the structured framework of Ringi.

What is the Ringi system in Japanese work culture?

The Ringi system is a decision-making process commonly used in Japanese corporations. It is a method of reaching a consensus within the company hierarchy, ensuring that decisions are thoroughly discussed and approved by relevant stakeholders before implementation. The term "ringi" comes from the Japanese word for "approval" or "endorsement."

Here's how the Ringi system typically works:

1. Proposal: A member of the organization develops a proposal for a new project, policy, or action. This proposal is usually detailed and includes the objectives, methods, budget, and other pertinent information.

2. Circulation: The proposal is then circulated among relevant departments and individuals within the organization. Each department or individual reviews the proposal and provides feedback or suggestions for modifications. The proposal will be repeatedly shared or passed around among relevant stakeholders for review and feedback until all possible modifications or changes have been considered and incorporated. 

The proposal will be passed to every related departments

3. Endorsement: Once all concerns have been addressed and there are no further adjustments deemed necessary, the circulation process will cease and the proposal will be endorsed by each department or individual involved in the decision-making process. This endorsement is typically indicated by signing or stamping the document with hanko.

4. Final Approval: The final decision rests with a higher-ranking authority within the organization, such as a manager or executive. This individual reviews the endorsed proposal and decides whether to approve it. If approved, the proposal can then be implemented.

The Ringi system ensures that decisions are made collaboratively and that all relevant stakeholders have the opportunity to provide input before a final decision is reached. This process promotes transparency, consensus-building, and accountability within the organization.

Why do Japanese companies use the Nemawashi and Ringi system?

Japanese companies use the Nemawashi and Ringi systems for several cultural and practical reasons, including:

1. Consensus-building

Japanese culture values consensus-building and harmony within groups. Nemawashi and Ringi facilitate this process by ensuring that decisions are made collaboratively, with input from relevant stakeholders. This helps foster a sense of ownership and commitment to decisions within the organization.

2. Risk mitigation

By requiring approval from multiple levels of authority, the Ringi system serves as a risk management mechanism. It helps identify potential risks and challenges early in the decision-making process, allowing for adjustments and mitigation strategies to be implemented before decisions are finalized. 

3. Respect for process

Japanese culture places a strong emphasis on procedural fairness and adherence to established processes. Proposals undergo multiple rounds of review and endorsement, allowing stakeholders to track the progress and understand the rationale behind every decision.

4. Long-term orientation

Japanese companies often prioritize long-term stability and sustainability over short-term gains. Decision-making may involve consideration of the broader impact on the organization's goals and objectives, leading to more thorough deliberation and analysis before a decision is reached.

5. Avoidance of confrontation and indirect communication style 

Indirectness and implicitness are common features of communication in Japan. As a result, individuals may refrain from expressing their opinions directly or engaging in confrontational dialogue, particularly in formal settings such as meetings. Circulating proposals allows participants more time and space to review the content, formulate their comments, and express their viewpoints in a less confrontational manner. This approach ensures the input from all stakeholders is valued, and conflicts are managed discreetly to preserve interpersonal relationships.

6. Maintaining hierarchical dynamics

Japanese companies often have hierarchical organizational structures where respect for authority and seniority is paramount. The Nemawashi and Ringi systems align with these hierarchical dynamics by ensuring that decisions are made collaboratively with input from all levels of the organization, from frontline employees to senior management. This inclusive approach to decision-making fosters a sense of respect and cooperation among employees, regardless of their hierarchical positions, while also reinforcing the authority of higher-ranking individuals in the final approval process.

Overall, Nemawashi and Ringi systems help Japanese companies make informed, consensus-based decisions that are transparent, aligned with organizational goals, and conducive to building trust and accountability within the organization.

Disadvantages of Nemawashi and Ringi System

While Nemawashi and Ringi systems are effective in Japanese business culture, they also possess drawbacks when compared to other decision-making processes. Here are some disadvantages of nemawashi and ringi system:

  • The Ringi system can be time-consuming due to the multiple rounds of review and endorsement required for each proposal. Delays in decision-making may occur, particularly in organizations with complex hierarchies or bureaucratic processes.

  • The consensus-building aspect of the Ringi system may result in resistance to change from stakeholders who are hesitant to endorse new proposals. This can slow down innovation and hinder organizational agility.

  • The hierarchical nature of the Ringi system may limit individual autonomy and initiative in decision-making. Lower-ranking employees may feel constrained by the need to seek approval from higher-level authorities before taking action.

  • The emphasis on consensus-building in the Ringi system may sometimes lead to groupthink, where dissenting viewpoints are suppressed in favor of maintaining harmony. This can result in suboptimal decisions that fail to consider alternative perspectives.


The Ringi system is still widely used in many Japanese companies today. Many Japanese companies recognize the benefits of the Ringi system, such as promoting consensus-building, ensuring transparency, and mitigating risks through thorough consideration of proposals. However, there has been some adaptation and modernization of decision-making processes in response to changes in business environments and globalization.

It's essential to note that the extent to which the Ringi system is used may vary among different organizations and industries. Some companies may adhere closely to traditional Ringi practices, while others may adopt more flexible approaches that blend elements of the Ringi system with other decision-making models.



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